How to Tell What Version of a RedHat-Based Flavour you are Using

It's important to know what version of RHEL/Fedora/CentOS/Scientific Linux/etc. you are dealing with when looking for version-compatible RPMs that are out-of-repo. I always end up forgetting how to do this, so for our mutual benefit:

$ cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS release 5.6 (Final)


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